la vieja de literatura

un blog para los estudiantes de Literatura del Tomás Berreta

Línea de tiempo de derechos civiles otorgados a las mujeres (aparte del voto)

Filed under: Uncategorized — lucampanella at 9:00 pm on Miércoles, Septiembre 21, 2011  Tagged , ,

Aquí les acerco una información muy interesante que sólo encontré en wikipedia inglés pero que es fácil de leer: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_women%27s_rights_(other_than_voting). Se trata de una lista ordenada cronológicamente de los derechos civiles que se otorgaron a las mujeres en diversas épocas, aquí sólo les dejo la del siglo XIX que es la que nos interesa desde el punto de vista del curso. Es increíble sobre todo porque refleja la situación de falta de derechos que se vivía antes del XIX. Es interesante mirar, por ejemplo, como los países nórdicos (Suecia, Dinamarca, Noruega, recuerden a Ibsen) son de los pioneros, junto con Estados Unidos. Fíjense en lo poco que aparece España y los países de Latino américa, o cómo es un avance que en Japón se prohíba matar a las niñas recién nacidas.  Da para reflexionar bastante, ¿no?, teniendo en cuenta por ejemplo los terribles hechos de violencia doméstica registrados esta semana acá mismo, en Uruguay.

 

 

19th century

  • 1810: Sweden : Unmarried women are allowed to be declared of legal majority by royal dispensation.
  • 1821: USA : The first Women’s university is founded.
  • 1829: India : Sati is banned.
  • 1833: USA : The first co-educational university, Oberlin, open to both sexes is founded in Ohio.
  • 1839: Great Britain: it is made possible for mothers to be made guardian for children at divorce. Mississippi in USA: Married women are allowed separate economy from their hubands.
  • 1841: Bulgaria: The first girls school makes education for women available.
  • 1842: Sweden: Elementary school compulsory by law for both boys and girls.
  • 1845: Sweden: Equal inheritance for sons and daughters (in the absence of a will)[6].
  • 1846: Sweden: Professions within the trades are opened on the same terms as men for all unmarried women.
  • 1847: Belgium: Elementary school for both genders
  • 1848: The state of New York in the United States : Separate economy and independence allowed for married women.
  • 1849: Elizabeth Blackwell becomes the first female doctor in USA, and in 1858 also in Great Britain.
  • 1850: Iceland : Legal majority for (unmarried) women in Iceland.
  • 1851: Guatemala: Women who fulfill the demands of personal economic wealth are granted citizenship.
  • 1853: Sweden: Women formally allowed to teach at universities.
  • 1854: Norway: Equal inheritance rights. Massachusetts in USA: Married women granted separate economy and legal majority.
  • 1857: Denmark: Women (if unmarried) are declared to be of legal majority in Denmark; no longer minors in law. Great Britain: formal Divorce, not just legal separation, is made possible.
  • 1858: Sweden : Legal majority for unmarried women[6].
  • 1859: Sweden: Several professions of lower officials are opened to women. Canada: Married women granted the right to own property.
  • 1861: Sweden: The profession of dentist is open to women in Sweden; Rosalie Fougelberg becomes the first woman dentist and the personal dentist of the queen in 1867 (though Amalia Assur was first, but with a special permission). USA: Lucy Hobbs Taylor becomes the first woman dentist. France: Julie-Victoire Daubié becomes the first female student.
  • 1863: Norway: Unmarried women granted legal majority (at the same age as men in 1869).
  • 1864: Finland: Legal majority for women. Sweden: Unmarried female industry workers are given the same rights as men. Sweden: Husbands are forbidden to abuse their wives[7]. Bohemia: taxpaying women and women in “learned proffession” made eligable to the legislative body in 1864[8]
  • 1865: Italy : Legal majority for unmarried women is granted by the new constitution. Switzerland: Women are allowed to study.
  • 1867: Russia: Women allowed to study in Russia (at the same terms as men in 1905) and in Finland (at the same terms as men in 1901).
  • 1868: The United States formally allows women to study, although several universities had already been open to women earlier.
  • 1869: Arabella Mansfield becomes the first woman to enter the practice of law in the U.S.
  • 1870: Great Britain: Legal majority for unmarried women; this law is improved in 1874, 1882, and in 1893. Sweden: Women are allowed to study (at the same terms as men 1873)[6] the first female student is Betty Pettersson. India: The murder of female infants is banned.
  • 1871: Japan: The first female students are granted scholarships to the United states.
  • 1872: Sweden: Arranged marriages are forbidden. Canada: Women with dependent children who have no husband may have homestead land in accordance with the Public Lands of the Dominion Statute. Japan: geishas are made independent.
  • 1873: Britain: Mothers are granted guardianshp for children at divorce. Custody of Infants Act 1873. Japan: Schools for the education of women to various professions are founded.
  • 1874: The Netherlands: Aletta Jacobs becomes the first woman allowed to study medicine. Italy: The universities open to women. Sweden: Married women are granted economical equality and legal majority[6]. France: The first female trade union. Japan: Elementary education for both genders, the profession of school teacher is opened to both sexes.
  • 1875: Denmark: Women allowed to study[6].
  • 1876: Great Britain: Women formally allowed to study.
  • 1877: Chile: Women are allowed to study.
  • 1878: Finland: Equality in inheritance[6] Great Britain: Abuse is recognized as grounds for divorce.
  • 1879: Brazil: Women allowed to study.
  • 1880: France: Women are allowed to study. Belgium:Women are allowed to study. Australia : Women are allowed to study. Canada:Women are allowed to study.
  • 1882: Great Britain: Married women are granted separate economy and legal majority (Married Women’s Property Act 1882). USA: Women are granted legal majority in the entire USA. France: Elementary school for both genders.
  • 1883: Romania: women allowed to study (Coeducation at the universities).
  • 1884: Norway: women allowed to study. Germany: Legal majority for unmarried women. Mexico: Legal majority for unmarried women. Ontario: married women are given control over their own property.
  • 1885: France: Divorce is again allowed (after having been abolished since 1814).
  • 1886: Britain: Josephine Butler puts a stop to the prostitution reglement. Mexico: The first women attend university.
  • 1888: Spain: women are allowed to study with a written approval from a male guardian. Norway: Legal majority for married women.
  • 1889: Sweden: women electable to social boards in schools and poor-care.
  • 1891: India: Females younger than 12 are banned from marrying (Child marriage).
  • 1891: U.S.: Marie Owens hired as a police officer in Chicago.
  • 1895: South Carolina in the United States: Separate economy allowed for married women. Upper Canada: Women allowed to work as barristers.
  • 1896: Austria-Hungary (and thereby also the future Czech Republic and Slovakia) : women allowed to study. The profession of lawyer are opened to both sexes in USA as a whole – but the first female lawyer in an American state was recorded already in 1869.
  • 1898: Haiti: women allowed to study.
  • 1899: Denmark: Legal majority for married women.


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